Polyester is the base fabric for all kinds of apparel. It is strong, resistant to shrinking and stretching, quick-drying and mildew-resistant, properties that make it a fantastic winter outerwear material. When tightly woven, polyester is also water-resistant and durable; however, nearly all boarding jackets and pants still need to be treated with some type of DWR coating (durable water repellant) or laminate to heighten these characteristics. Polyester fabrics come in varying weights (gauges), the heavier the denser. However, the best indicator of the protective qualities for any given polyester shell is the factory-assessed waterproof/breathability ratings, discussed below, under "Characteristics."
Nylon is an exceptionally strong material, with low-absorbency and elastic characteristics. It can be dyed easily and is simple to wash, a big plus for riders. This resilient fabric is very typical in the outerwear market; again, despite its many benefits, a supplementary coating is often added to nylon fabrics to increase their protective capabilities. Like polyester, nylon is woven into different material weights, which is indicated by a gauge measurement (ie. 80g polyester). Of course, the waterproof/breathability rating (see "Characteristics" below) issued by the manufacturer is the easiest way to determine whether a particular jacket or pant will work under your desired conditions.
Some shell apparel is made using nylon and/or polyester microfibers. Using extremely fine fibers, these materials are woven into high-performance, super durable, lightweight, breathable, highly water-repellant and wind-resistant outerwear. Because of its superior properties, microfiber is typically reserved for the most expensive, highest-tech jackets and pants on the apparel market.
Gore-Tex has sweeping uses in our society, from clothing to medical equipment. It is highly porous (approx. 9 billion holes per square inch), with microscopic openings that are 20,000 times smaller than a drop of water. This technology is the foundation for a material that is waterproof but breathable, as water vapors (a.k.a. sweat and body heat-induced moisture) are small enough to fit through the tiny pores. In outerwear, Gore-Tex membranes are attached to nylon or polyester base fabrics to create a protective shield against rain/snow, wind and cold. The Gore Company, maker of the original Gore-Tex, insists that any company using its technology must seal the seams of the garments in order to ensure that no moisture can penetrate the teeny holes made by stitching during assembly, so you can rest assured that your gear will be leak proof and sound.
Insulated or not, outerwear designed for snowboarding should boast at least some level of water-resistance to protect the rider from the rainy or snowy conditions found on a mountainside. Simply put, the more extreme the weather, the more waterproof your gear should be.
In most cases, manufacturers coat fabrics such as nylon and polyester with porous membranes, each with a certain amount of waterproofness. (Unlike these fabrics, Gore-Tex doesn't require supplemental coating, as it is already designed to be impermeable.) The companies then assess ratings to the apparel in order to give the consumer an idea of how much protection they can expect. These ratings are usually in millimeters, denoting the number of millimeters of rain the garment can withstand over the course of 24 hours. Therefore, a jacket with a waterproof rating of 20,000mm will be more waterproof than one with a rating of 10,000mm. Of course, the chances that you'll encounter 10,000mm of rain in a day (that's nearly 33 feet) are pretty low, but factors such as the force of the rain can detract from your outerwear's ability to keep you dry.
To ensure that there aren't even the slightest holes made by stitching the fabric together, manufacturers usually seal the seams of the garments to prevent any moisture from creeping in. The definition of critically taped seams varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, but it typically refers to the most exposed areas of the garment: the shoulders, arms and side seams on jackets and the rear-end and outer seams on pants. Critically taped seams are good enough under most conditions, though fully taped seams will offer the highest amount of protection to the wearer under the foulest conditions.
If you're looking for a springtime jacket/pant, or just something to rock on the clear days, you can opt for a garment with a water-repellant or water-resistant rating. These fabrics are coated with a membrane that combats the rain, but won't offer as much protection as waterproof outerwear. The trade-off is in breathability - waterproof materials usually aren't as breathable as water-repellant or resistant fabrics.
Over time, it is likely that any apparel, despite its original waterproofing, will succumb to the dirt, oil, sweat, wear and tear that comes with our fine sport. When the fabric becomes easily permeable by water, it's time to get some new gear.
Breathability ratings are often coupled with waterproofing ratings to give you an idea of the protection and comfort possible in the face of heavy weather. A garment's breathability is usually noted in grams (ie. 10,000g), which is a little simplified. In fact, the unit is g/24hrs/m² - the number of grams of water vapor that can pass through a square meter of the fabric over the course of 24 hours. This measurement refers to moisture such as sweat and condensation; as they form inside of the garment, they turn to water vapor and then pass through the pores, cooling down the rider. The higher the breathability rating, the less humidity you can expect to build up inside of your outerwear.
Windproof or wind-resistant fabrics are made by weaving the fibers of the material extra tightly to prevent wind from penetrating the garment and reaching the wearer. A day might be otherwise fairly clear, but an intense wind chill can drastically influence the temperature you experience out in the open. Wind can often tear across the mountainside at blistering speeds, so invest in the protection of a high-quality garment specifically designed to fight the wind and you'll be able to stay warm and extend your day.
These are angles built into a jacket or pant around your elbow or knee joints, allowing for unencumbered range of motion.
A cuff is the part of a jacket or pant that wraps around your wrist or ankle. There are usually mechanisms in outerwear cuffs designed to prevent snow or rain from entering your sleeve or pant leg, such as cinches or Velcro closures.
DURABLE WATER REPELLANT (DWR) COATING
DWR is a coating applied as either a primary or supplementary water-resistant shield. Not only does it increase the waterproofness of a garment, but it does so without much or any sacrifice in breathability.
On snowboarding clothes, gaiters made from a water-resistant material (such as polyester) extend outward from the inside of the sleeve or pant leg, providing a protective interface at your wrists and ankles. Their purpose is to cover any exposed skin between your cuffs and your gloves or boots thereby restricting any snow, cold or wind from making its way into the inner parts of your garment.
There are several features built into jacket hoods to make them more convenient, protective and customizable. For instance, hoods are either fixed/attached or removable. They can be adjustable through cinching cords or Velcro straps, or they might be designed to roll up-and-into a lateral pocket on the back of your collar. No matter what the hood can do, make sure that it reaches your forehead and that there is some protection at the chin (such as a "chin guard") to cover the zipper when it is pulled all the way up.
Many resorts have begun to use electronic pass scanners to shuttle riders through the lift-lines quickly and efficiently. To use a scanner, you often need to get really up close and personal with the sensor in order for it to read the chip in your pass. Rather than stick your pass in a pant pocket or chest pocket (just imagine the scene when you encounter a really picky scanner), you can keep it safe and secure in a jacket pass pocket. Often see-through, these pockets are positioned in convenient locations on the jacket to allow for easy scanning, often at the bottom of your sleeve, protected by a large cuff straps.
D-rings serve a similar purpose, giving riders a convenient place on their jacket to attach a lift ticket.
A powder skirt works somewhat like a gaiter for the waist, giving riders an extra layer of protection from the snow. By preventing snow from entering through the bottom of the jacket and at the same time protecting the top of the pants, powder skirts allow you to remain warm and dry in your gear, despite severe weather.
REINFORCED SEAT/KNEES (Pants)
The makers of a good pair of riding pants will recognize the need for reinforcement around the seat and knees, where most contact with the snow happens. Therefore, some pants come with added patches, stronger materials or thicker fiber weaves in these areas to combat their accelerated wear and tear.
As described in the "Waterproof" section of this article, seam sealing is an important step in ensuring your gear's protective quality. Waterproof tape seals the seams to prevent any moisture from leaking in through the needle holes made when stitching the material together. Critically taped seams will cover the most exposed sections of the seams, while fully taped seams will seal every stitch on the garment.
A storm flap is the piece of material that keeps the snow, rain or wind from breaking through the tiny spaces in the zippers (or other openings) on your snowboarding clothes. The flap is most commonly on the outside of the zipper, but can also be found along the inside or on both sides, essentially acting as an added shield against the elements.
It's kind of crazy to think about how much junk we carry around with us while riding - there's the cell phone, wallet, keys, iPod, chapstick, sunscreen, goggles, snow tool, extra gloves, spare beanie… get the picture? Luckily, outerwear companies recognize the insane pocket-need of the modern rider, and have been making jackets and pants with more stash spots than ever before. Some pockets are designed for general use, while others, like goggle pockets or so-called "media-pockets," are intended for a particular item.
Quick tip: While having a place for everything can be really great, you could benefit from being discerning about what you take to the mountain. In an industry where lightweight gear is the objective, you may end up counteracting the purpose of your clothes by weighing them down with unnecessary stuff.
Ventilation is an essential part of any outerwear. Despite a garment's breathability rating, there are still times when a little added airflow makes a huge difference in your comfort while riding. Many jackets will come with vents in the underarm area (called "pit zips"), on the chest, and/or across the back to keep your torso cool. In pants, vents are commonly found along the seams, at the hips and across the thighs. Vents are often lined with mesh, so while the air will flow, less chill will enter your jacket/pant through the opening.
Zippers for outerwear are made to varying specifications of strength and water-resistance. These aren't ordinary zippers; they are robust, hefty, technical closures that are designed to secure your garment and protect you from cold and wet conditions. There are waterproof zippers for high-end gear, and there are zippers sprayed with water-repellant coatings to discourage moisture from entering through the teeth.Quick tip: When buying a jacket/pant, check out the zipper pull: is it large and grippy enough to grab with your gloves on? Being able to easily access the interior of your clothes (or the pockets for that matter) without removing your gloves is an often-overlooked aspect of outerwear convenience, but it's one that will add riding time to your day.
Remember, outerwear is only half of the story when it comes to staying comfortable while riding. Proper layering matters just as much.